Bloodless surgery is a term given to the kind of medical procedure that does not need transfusion of allogenic blood (donor blood). These are generally minimally invasive types of surgical procedures that need very small incisions that results in minimum, or no, blood loss.
Bloodless surgery is a medical term used to identify a number of surgical procedures that are done without donor blood transfusion. This is usually done with non-invasive, or minimally invasive, surgical techniques where the patient’s own blood or its products are used when required.
People choose this type of surgery over conventional surgery for many reasons such as religious beliefs (Jehovah’s Witness), fear of acquiring blood-borne diseases such as AIDS or hepatitis.
The Jehovah’s Witness believe that it is prohibited to ingest or transfuse blood from an allogenic (source), even in an emergency. The transfusion of blood’s four main components – red blood cells, white blood cells, platelets and plasma – are also in this prohibition. Although blood donation for fractionation, or for the hemodilution procedure,are left to personal choice.
There are alternate surgical techniques for such patients which are termed as ‘bloodless surgery’. These basically include non-invasive and blood-retention procedures. This type of surgery does not need donor blood transfusion. Doctors use the patient’s own blood and increase its volume with a specific process that allows for blood level to be maintained when needed.
The doctor may use robotic-assisted and other such minimally invasive surgical techniques that ensure minimal blood loss due to ruptured blood vessels. The robotic surgery technique is highly efficient as it gives a high-resolution 3-D view of the operating area while the adaptive robotic surgery instruments allow the doctor to perform the surgery with minimal or no bleeding.
The doctors also employ a number of different techniques to ensure less bleeding during surgery, such as treating the patient to increase the red-blood volume in the body, specially designed surgical procedure that allows least loss of blood, etc.
Bloodless surgeries for Jehovah’s Witness have been conducted successfully for Hip Replacements as well as Open Heart Surgery.
- Living Donor Transplant – Living donor transplants need to be done in a quick and efficient manner to minimize risk of organ rejection and to ensure that the donated kidney adapts faster to the new body. This is usually done with the donor being a close family member.
- Deceased Donor Donation – This is done using a healthy kidney donated by the donor at the time of death. Deceased donor kidney transplants are successful with the employment of modern transplanting techniques. The kidney and blood type of the donor is verified and if found to have a match then the transplantation procedure is done.
Lung transplant is the surgical procedure required to substitute a weak or diseased lung with a healthy lung from a non-living donor, usually. Lung transplant may need to be done for one or both the lungs, depending on the disorder. A bloodless surgical procedure for lung transplant will entail the doctor to take into consideration certain factors such as your age, extent of lung damage, risk of blood loss, etc.
A liver transplant is a medical procedure that involves replacing a diseased liver with a healthy donor liver.
Bloodless liver transplants are done through minimally invasive techniques. The surgery requires the doctor to access your liver and discontinue the liver’s blood supply and close the bile ducts to remove the diseased liver. The doctor then attaches a healthy donor liver in its place.
In case where the transplant is being done with a living donor’s liver the doctor will only remove a part of the donor’s liver and replace the diseased liver with the partial liver. The doctor will reattach the blood supply and connect the bile ducts to the partial liver. The liver of the donor and the donated part of the liver have a tendency to regenerate at a fast rate.
Pancreatic surgery is most often required for treating pancreatic cancers and for removal of pancreatic tumors. Depending on the extent of damage by the tumor the doctor will suggest the type of surgery for its removal. There are different types of surgeries for pancreatic removal such as duodenum preserving pancreatic removal, central pancreatectomy, spleen preserving distal pancreatectomy, wide resection of the ampulla, etc.
Doctors usually use the laparoscopic method of surgery to ensure least blood-loss and to lessen the time of the operation. In this type of procedure the doctor will use a tube-like device that gives a better view of the pancreatic disorder. The doctor then uses laparoscopic hand-devices that have tiny surgical instruments attached which allow the doctor to perform the necessary surgery.
The advantages of bloodless pancreatic surgery include decreased amount of pain, quicker recovery due to minimal invasive methods and it also lowers the risk of infections after surgery significantly.
Gynecological Oncology–This involves diagnosis and treatment of female cancer forms including cervical uterine cancer, vulvar, ovarian and vaginal cancer. The doctors use robotic non-invasive bloodless surgery to remove the tumor tissues. This type of surgery ensures decreased pain and minimal blood-loss during surgery. The doctors can perform a hysterectomy using bloodless surgery techniques for treating non-carcinogenic disorders.
Doctors also employ minimally invasive surgical procedures to treat several non-cancerous gynecological conditions such as irregular menstrual periods (metrorrhagia), heavy menstrual periods (menorrhagia), pelvic pain and ovarian cysts.
Vascular surgeries are required to treat diseases and disorders that afflict the vascular system (arteries and veins).
Bloodless, or least invasive, techniques have recently become popular with patients who seek to treat vascular disorders with minimally invasive techniques.
These are a few vascular disorders and the types of bloodless surgery that can treat them:
Varicose Veins – The treatment is dependent on the patient’s anatomy and extent of the disease. Smaller veins are usually treated with Laser or Sclerotherapy. Larger veins may be removed using smaller incisions such as micro-vascular or stab-avulsion techniques. Radio-frequency ablation is the latest technique to treat a malfunctioning superficial vein.
Angioplasty – This procedure is required when the veins in your body suffer from multiple or recurring blockages, thereby reducing the blood supply to the extremities in the body. An angioplasty uses a catheter to increase the diameter of the blocked vein to return it to normal supplying of blood.
A bloodless general surgery entails surgical treatment of the abdominal region such as esophagus, colon, liver, stomach, small bowel, gall bladder, pancreas and bile ducts using special least invasive surgical procedures. This type of surgery is also known as bloodless general surgery.
General bloodless surgeries are usually performed using an endoscope. This is a thin and flexible tube-like device that is inserted by making pin-hole incisions in the skin. This endoscope is equipped with a camera, light source and a number of tiny medical instruments can be attached for performing the required surgical procedure.
Urological surgery specializes in treating disorders of the male/female urinary tract system and the male reproductive organs diseases. This involves the treatment of diseases and disorders that afflict the kidneys, urethras, urinary bladder, adrenal gland, urethra and the complete system of the male reproductive organs.
Cancer surgery is necessary to prevent or treat existing forms of cancer or tumors in various parts of the body. Most types of cancer can be treated by using bloodless, or minimally invasive, surgical methods.
A cancer surgery may be performed for either diagnosis, treatment, removal of tumor or affected tissues and to prevent the risk of cancerous growth in the body.
Bloodless cancer treatment is performed by using endoscope to diagnose the cancer and its extent. The doctor may remove the timorous part or the whole organ to prevent the cancer from spreading.
Open heart surgery requires the heart to be exposed and blood is made to bypass it till the surgery is complete.
Many people now try to avoid conventional open heart surgery due to the amount of risks and complications often associated with it. The latest technique for performing cardiac surgery is the minimally invasive heart procedure. This is done by using robotic-assistance to perform the surgical procedure.
The robotically performed heart surgery provides the surgeon with a 3D view of the cardiac disorder and the surgeon uses remotely controlled surgical instruments to perform the required procedure. This type of procedure requires minute-sized incisions and is more efficient as well as less painful while having a faster rate of recovery as well.
The stereotactic neurosurgery process uses a 3-dimensional imaging system to enhance the diagnosis and surgical capabilities of the surgeon to make ablations, lesions, biopsy, injection, implantation, simulation and radio-surgery of the affected part. This is a minimally invasive surgical procedure also known as stereotaxy.
Orthopedic surgery involves the diagnosis and treatment of diseases and disorders related to the musculoskeletal structure of the body. The musculoskeletal structure consists of the bones, joints, muscles, nerves, ligaments and tendons.
Arthroscopy is a popular type of surgery used to treat orthopedic disorders. This surgery can be used for cartilage surgery and reconstruction of torn ligaments.
Pediatric surgery involves the diagnosis and treatment of disorders and diseases that are seen in fetuses, infants, children, teenagers and young adults.
Neonatal surgery is a sub-specialty that diagnoses and treats disorders in newborn infants specifically.
It is uncommon to find cancer in children. For treatment of cancer in children using non-invasive methods it requires a team of surgical specialists that are chosen from the various divisions of medical science.
The type of treatment for pediatric cancer basically depends upon various factors such as the type and progress stage of the cancer, eventual side effects, the choice of the child’s family and the general health of the child.
The various types of pediatric cancer treatment are:
Surgery – A conventional surgical method of treating cancer involves making an incision around the cancerous area and removing the tumors and carcinogenic cells from the organ. This often requires removal of surrounding tissues or organs that are at risk of acquiring cancer.
Chemotherapy – Chemotherapy involves the use of specialized medicines and drugs to destroy cancer cells and tumors. This is most often done by restricting the growth and division abilities of the cancerous cells.
The method of chemotherapy may involve delivering medicines through an intravenous (IV) system or through oral ingestion.
Radiation Therapy – The radiation therapy of treatment for cancer entails the use of high-energy light waves to destroy the cancerous cells. The radiation therapy may be given from outside the body (external-beam radiation therapy) or with the use of implants (brachytherapy).
Cardiology is the science that deals with the treatment of ailments and disorders of the heart. It includes treatment of coronary artery diseases, congenital heart defects, heart failure and electrophysiology.
Cardiac surgery is used to treat a number of disorders of the heart, such as cardiac arrest (ceasing of heart beat), disorders of the myocardium (heart muscles), pericardium (external heart lining) disorders , disorders of the heart valves, etc.
An otolaryngal disorder affects the Ear, Nose and Throat (ENT) region as well as the head and neck areas that are related to these parts. These are more commonly known as ENT disorders.
Otolaryngology covers the following ailments and disorders:
Head and Neck Cancer
- Thyroid Cancer
- Skull base surgery
- Salivary Gland Cancer
Otology & Neurotology
- Acoustic Neuroma
- Hearing Loss
- Perforated Ear-drum
- Ear surgery
- Acute/chronic sinusitis
- Environmental allergies
- Pituitary tumors
Plastic surgery is the term used to denote the group of surgical procedures performed with the aim to alter a defect or restore the body to its original form.
The most common type of plastic surgery is the skin grafting method. Skin grafts can be taken from self or other donors.
Reconstructive surgery is mainly performed to improve function in a damaged body part. It is usually performed to rectify functional disorders caused by burns, traumatic injuries or fracture to the face, congenital deformities such as cleft palate or hare lip. It is also done to amend the damage caused by cancer and tumors to the contours of the body.
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