Also known as ‘epilepsy’, seizure is a neurological health condition that mainly arises due to disturbance in activity of cells present in an individual’s brain. It may lead to uncontrollable shaking and other similar sensations in patient’s body. Seizures may affect anyone despite their age and occur at any instant. They may prove life-threatening if they emerge while an individual is performing activities like swimming or driving. Patients must seek a medical assistance at the earliest for avoiding serious complications. Early detection and treatment of this condition can significantly improve patient’s quality of life.
Signs and Symptoms of Seizures
The following points elaborate some major signs and symptoms of seizures
. Patients experiencing these signs must consult well-experienced neurosurgeons in order to get relief.
- Confusion - Patients may experience temporary confusion and dizziness during an episode of seizure. A severe headache may follow the situation.
- Staring Spell - It is one of the most common warning signs of seizures. In such cases, patients should meet neurosurgeons for prompt diagnosis.
- Uncontrollable Limb Movements - Uncontrollable muscle spasms and jerking of legs and arms clearly signifies the condition of epilepsy.
- Loss of Consciousness - Patients may lose their consciousness for some interval after an episode of seizure. They should not neglect such symptoms and right away visit a qualified doctor.
- Psychic Symptoms - Patients struggling with an underlying condition of epilepsy are likely to experience a large range of psychic symptoms such as frequent mood changes, feeling of anxiousness and fear.
Major Types of Seizures
The given list elaborates the two major categories of seizures.
- Focal Seizures - Focal seizures appear when cell activity of only a specific region of brain gets affected. These seizures are again subdivided into the following two groups.
- Simple Partial Seizures - This type of seizures can bring about a considerable change in patient’s sensory system and emotional pattern. Patients may begin to feel, sound or smell differently. Unlike other types of seizures, they hardly lead to loss of consciousness.
- Complex Partial Seizures - Most of the times, these seizures lead to loss of consciousness. Patients may begin to do repetitive movements such as biting nails or hand rubbing during an episode of complex partial seizure.
- Generalized Seizures - These seizures can adversely impact entire brain of patients.
- Absence Seizures - They are most commonly observed in children and young teens. Frequent eye blinking and lip smacking are the major indications of absence They are clinically referred to as ‘petit mal seizures’.
- Tonic Seizures - They may lead to unbearable muscle spasms in legs and arms of patients.
- Atonic Seizures - Also called as ‘drop seizures’ atonic seizures negatively affect muscle control in patient’s body and eventually result in sudden falls.
- Clonic Seizures - Clonic seizures affect muscles present in arms and neck area of patients. They lead to intense and continuous jerking movements.
- Myoclonic Seizures - They may cause a sudden and sharp sensation in patients legs and arms of patients.
- Tonic-Clonic Seizures - Medical practitioners refer tonic-clonic seizures as ‘grand mal seizures’. These seizures are extremely severe in nature. They may cause bladder control and relatively long episodes of uncontrollable body movements.
Causes and Risk Factors for Seizures
At present, there is no identifiable cause of epilepsy. However, healthcare professionals state that the following medical conditions may raise the occurrence of seizures in an individual.
- Faulty Genes - Faulty genes or a family history of this neurological disorder significantly increases the chances of an individual of getting seizures.
- Serious Head Injury and Infection - Sometimes, head trauma during birth or accidents and infections such as meningitis in patient’s spine or brain may lead to seizures.
- Strokes - Strokes and other blood vessel diseases can trigger the episodes of seizures in an individual.
- Developmental Issues - Certain developmental problems such as autism may also aggravate the chances of seizures in an individual.
Diagnosing Intensity of Seizures
Patients suffering from the symptoms of seizures must take an appointment with adept neurosurgeons. It will improve the possibility of successful results. Respective neurosurgeons may order the given diagnostic tests to identify the type and intensity of seizures in patients.
- Neurological Evaluation - It involves the inspection of patient’s working ability and their behavioral pattern. Doctors may ask the patients to perform simple tasks such as reading, walking or identifying pictures.
- Imaging Procedures - Doctors may order imaging tests such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), positron emission tomography (PET), computerized tomography scan (CT) and electroencephalogram (EEG). These tests can precisely identify the root cause as well as the areas where the seizures
- Blood Tests - Respective neurosurgeons may advise patients to undergo some blood tests for confirming the diagnosis.
Treatment Options for Seizures
The following list indicates mainstream treatment options for seizures or epilepsy.
- Medications - In mild cases, respective neurosurgeons may ask patients to consume certain medicines which are called as ‘anti-epileptic medicines’. These medicines can prove highly beneficial in reducing the severity and occurrence of seizures in an individual. However, they may result in side effects such as loss of coordination, dizziness and memory-related problems. Patients need to take prescribed dosage of these medications at appropriate time in order to minimize the side effects.
- Epilepsy Surgery - Surgical approach is recommended when seizures frequently emerge from a particular area in patient’s brain. In addition to this, respective doctors make sure that the area that needs to be operated does not create trouble in motor function, speech and eyesight of patients. Patients may be sedated using local anesthetics so that they remain awake during the surgery. Doctors may operate and remove the seizure-prone parts and simultaneously keep on monitoring the patients. In some cases where the areas are inoperable, doctors may make multiple small cuts to minimize the frequency of seizures. This medical process is called as multiple subpial transection procedure.
- Vagus Nerve Stimulation Therapy - This procedure involves the use of a sophisticated medical instrument called as ‘vagus nerve stimulator’. Respective neurosurgeons carefully place this device beneath the chest area of patients and interconnect it with vagus nerve in neck. Stimulator continuously sends electrical signals to vagus nerve that extends up to brain of patients. It noticeably minimizes the intensity of seizures and helps patients live a normal life.
Doctors may ask patients to intake a ketogenic diet which is enriched with fats. It is believed that it can reduce the occurrence of seizures. However, there is no strong scientific evidence that can prove this point.
Risks and Complications Associated With Epilepsy Surgery
The given points explain some major risks and complications associated with epilepsy surgery.
- Infection and Bleeding - There is a great risk of infection and bleeding in brain following an epilepsy surgery. An immediate care is required to treat these complications.
- Brain Damage - Sometimes, nerves and blood vessels in brain that control vision and speech may get damaged during surgery and lead to serious disability.
- Recurrence of Seizures - Surgical approach may fail in providing complete relief. Patients may experience seizures even after surgery.
Patients should discuss these potential complications and their possible solutions with respective neurosurgeons prior signing the consent form for epilepsy surgery.
Recovery Following Epilepsy Surgery
Patients may require staying in hospital nearly for three to four days following their epilepsy surgery. Patients may experience sharp pain and swelling around their head for initial few days. Doctors may prescribe painkillers to help patients cope up with the painful symptoms. During this phase, patients will not be allowed to do any strenuous physical activity. Therefore, they should ask a caregiver to help them with daily routine tasks until they recover fully. Complete healing may take up to 12 weeks of time.
Best Benefits of Availing Seizures Surgery in India with Travcure
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is one of the most reputed healthcare service facilitators across the world. Travcure offers a wide range of medical treatments and surgeries for neurological conditions such as seizures at reasonable prices. To be honest, seizures surgery cost
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