What is Gastric Bypass Surgery?
Gastric Bypass is a surgical procedure for weight loss and health gain. It is performed to decrease the total volume of the stomach and reattach the small intestine to a smaller portion to ensure less intake of food, which results in weight loss.
Why Should I choose Gastric Bypass Surgery?
Gastric Bypass surgery is found to be one of the most effective ways to lose weight and avoid the many weight-related complications and medical disorders that arise due to obesity. If you are suffering from morbid obesity (where your BMI is above 40), hypertension, type 2 diabetes and sleep apnea it is highly recommended to undergo a gastric bypass surgery if your doctor suggests. This surgical procedure results in remarkable weight loss and reduced comorbidity.
Gastric bypass surgical procedure does not only reduce your weight dramatically it also decreases the risk of developing life-threatening comorbid conditions that affect your quality of life as well.
How is Gastric Bypass Surgery Performed?
The basic aim of a gastric bypass surgery is to create a partition in the stomach which in turn reduces the total volume of the stomach capacity. This results in less intake of food as only a smaller part of the stomach is able to receive the food and a lesser than normal amount of food intake satiates the stomach. The secondary aim of the gastric bypass surgery involves attaching the small intestine to any one part of the divided stomach.
What are the Types of Gastric Bypass Surgery?
Basically the gastric bypass surgery is performed with the conventional method of an open-type surgery where the surgeon will make a wide enough incision over the stomach that will allow him to perform the necessary alterations to the stomach.
Now the more common, and most preferred, method of performing a gastric bypass surgery is through a laparoscopic surgical procedure. This minimally invasive procedure involves making very few small pinhole incisions in the skin that allow the surgeon to insert the surgical telescope with the video camera into the stomach area for visual assistance. The other pinhole incisions are used to insert special miniaturized surgical instruments to perform the required surgical alterations.
There are three variations of gastric bypass surgery, these are:
Roux en-Y (proximal)
This is the most common kind of variation performed in a gastric bypass surgery. In this surgery the small intestine is bifurcated around 18 inch below the lower stomach outlet and configured into a Y-shape that facilitates the food to pass from the small upper stomach part through the ‘Roux limb’. In this variation the Y-intersection is formed at the proximal (upper) end of the small intestine. The ‘Roux limb’ is made by using around 31-59 inch of the small intestine whereas the rest of it is left for absorbing the nutrients from the food.
Roux en-Y (distal)
In this variation of the gastric bypass surgery the Y-connection of the small intestine is shifted much lower in the gastrointestinal tract and the length of the small intestine left to absorb nutrients is significantly reduced. The Y-connection is attached to the distal (lower) part of the small intestine that results in a reduced amount of nutrient absorption by the small intestine, including the absorption of starches and fats and other fat-soluble vitamins.
Mini Gastric Bypass (MGB)
This variation of the gastric bypass surgery shapes the stomach into a more narrow form along the right-hand side border (lesser curvature). A part of the small intestine is attached to this narrow stomach around 180 cms from the intestine’s origin. This procedure also reduces the chances of bile reflux. This variation of the gastric bypass procedure is found to be more effective than the Roux en-Y procedure due to its simpler form.
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Risks & Complications
Like any major surgical procedure the gastric bypass surgical procedure also carries a certain amount of risk. Here are a few complications that are sometimes seen after a gastric bypass surgery:
- Mortality – Research has shown that the overall risk of complications (within 30 days post-surgery) are around 7% for laparoscopic procedure and around 14.5% for an open conventional type surgery. The mortality rate for laparoscopic surgical procedure for gastric bypass is not seen whereas the open type gastric bypass surgery carries a mortality risk of around 0.6%. The mortality cases were found to be influenced by a pre-existing condition such as obesity level, obstructive sleep apnea, heart disorder, diabetes and previous pulmonary embolism.
- Infection – There are chances of infections to develop in an open type gastric bypass surgery in the incisions as well as inside the stomach due to an abscess or peritonitis. There is also a possibility of developing blood-borne infection (sepsis), kidney infection, bladder infection and pneumonia. The regular use of antibiotics and respiratory therapy reduces the chances of an infection significantly.
- Venous thromboembolism – The body automatically releases blood coagulating agents in case of an injury, and the lack of activity after the surgery increases the possibility of blood clotting in the veins of the legs and pelvis, especially in morbidly obese patients. It has the risk of a pulmonary embolism to develop if the blood clot breaks free from the leg or pelvis and reaches the lungs. To avoid this situation the doctors will administer sufficient amount of blood-thinning agents.
- Hemorrhage – The surgery might require to cut a number of blood vessels in order to bifurcate the stomach pouch and these may later cause internal bleeding (hemorrhage) in the abdomen or the bowel. The way to stop this type of hemorrhage might require blood transfusion or even a second surgery to stop the bleeding.
- Hernia – This is an abnormal opening that occurs in the abdomen or the abdominal wall muscles. An internal hernia may cause bowel obstruction and require a separate surgery to fix this.
Why to get Gastric Bypass Surgery in India?
The doctors and surgeons in India handle thousands of successful gastric bypass cases every year. These surgeons and doctors are extremely experienced and have an extensive training in performing gastric bypass surgeries of all types and variation. Moreover the hospitals and clinics in India have a wide variety of the best and most modern surgical equipment that contributes to the higher success rate of gastric bypass surgery. Apart from this the major reason why thousands of patients choose India to get gastric bypass surgery is the extremely low cost of the procedure as compared to other Western countries. The global-standard hospitals provide the best kind of surgical facilities at the lowest rates.