Laparoscopy surgery is a minimally invasive type of surgery that is used to diagnose and treat various forms of disorders. It is performed with the help of a remotely controlled surgical device known as a Laparoscope.

What is Laparoscopic Surgery?

Laparoscopic surgery is a minimally invasive surgical procedure that uses a laparoscope to diagnose, treat and perform various types of surgeries on many medical disorders. Laparoscopic surgery is also known as Minimally Invasive Surgery (MIS), keyhole surgery, band aid surgery among other names.

This technique consists of making very few and minute incisions far from the affected area to insert a laparoscope into the body. The main part of this surgery is the use of laparoscope which is a length of surgical-grade fiber optic system that allows a clear and enhanced view of the diseased organ. The laparoscope tube mainly has a camera, ‘cold’ light source (Xenon or Halogen) along with an assortment of tiny surgical devices that are required for the particular surgery.

Types of Laparoscopic Surgery

The two main types of laparoscopic surgeries are:

  • Da Vinci Surgical System – This type of laparoscopic procedure needs multiple small incisions. It employs a console that gives a remote operated control to the surgeon. This system has a camera, vacuum pump, cutting tools, etc inserted in from the multiple incisions and aimed towards the operating site. The surgeon controls and manipulates the system with the use of two haptic controllers that relay sensations to the surgeon during the surgery which results in better understanding of the progress of the procedure.
  • Bonati System – This system does not require multiple small incisions. A single controlling system contains most of the tools and instruments required for the surgery. This gives a distinct advantage to the surgeon over even the Da Vinci Surgical System.
Robotic Laparoscopic Surgery Robotic laparoscopic surgery is very efficient and gives greater control to the surgeon in performing intricate surgical procedures with lesser risks. In the Robotic minimally invasive surgical procedure the surgeon uses two master controls to operate four robotic limbs. The surgeon operates from a distance with the help of a video console that provides a high-resolution 3-dimensional view of the operation area inside the body. A distinct advantage of robotic laparoscopic surgery is that it can be used to perform surgical procedures from a remote location without the surgeon’s presence in the operating room. Gynecology Laparoscopy Gynecology laparoscopy procedures are the new alternative to conventional gynecology surgery. The doctor will be able to do a better diagnosis with a laparoscope camera to determine the location and extent of the disorder. This procedure also has miniature surgical instruments that allow the surgeon to perform the required procedure. Laparoscopic gynecology surgery can be used to perform delicate surgical procedures such as ovarian cyst removal, hysterectomy, tubal ligations, etc. Pelvic Laparoscopy Pelvic laparoscopy is widely used by doctors today to diagnose and treat many disorders and diseases of the reproductive organ system. This procedure is basically performed by inserting the thin laparoscopic tube after making a very small incision in your body. The doctor can use pelvis laparoscopy to diagnose and treat various conditions afflicting the ovaries, uterus, Fallopian tubes, etc. The camera mounted at the end of the laparoscope will give the doctor a better view of the condition after which he can determine the best way to proceed with the specific procedure. Pelvic laparoscopic surgery is virtually less painful and incurs less, or no, bleeding. Laparoscopic Gallbladder Removal Laparoscopic procedure for gallbladder is used to treat problems associated with gall bladder and removal of gallstones. In this type of surgery the doctor will make around 4 small incisions in your abdomen to insert the laparoscope tube. This will enable the doctor to view the gallbladder and its surrounding tissues. According to the procedure the doctor will then use miniature surgical instruments attached to the laparoscope to drain bile from the gallbladder and then proceed to remove the gallbladder from its place. The liver is directly connected to the small intestine to bypass the gallbladder altogether. This removes the risk of gallstones and other disorders. Appendectomy An appendectomy is needed to remove the appendix of a person. This is most often done as an emergency procedure. The procedure involves making an incision along the pubic area at the base of the appendix location. The abdominal wall layers are shifted aside to get better access to the appendix. The doctor then identifies the appendix and mobilizes it. After this the appendix is removed and divided at the base. At times, the doctor might choose to invert the stump of the appendix and make it redundant. This is a simple procedure and does not require a long stay in the hospital. Adrenalectomy An adrenalectomy is required if a benign or cancerous condition is found in the adrenal glands of a person. Adrenal glands are situated above your kidneys and are responsible for producing several hormones that regulate metabolism, blood pressure, blood sugar level, immune system and other important functions. The surgery required to remove one or both adrenal glands when afflicted with adrenal tumors or adrenal cancer is known as adrenalectomy. An adrenalectomy is also needed when a metastasized cancer from a surrounding organ or tissue reaches the adrenal glands. The removal of a single adrenal gland does not hinder the functioning of the other in any way. Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy The surgery performed to remove a gallbladder is also known as a cholecystectomy. This surgery is required in cases of symptomatic gallstones and other gallbladder conditions. The procedure for laparoscopic cholecystectomy involves making 4 small incisions in the abdomen to insert the laparoscope. The doctor then uses the camera in the laparoscope to identify the exact condition of the gallbladder. After this the doctor will identify the cyst duct and cystic artery and clamp them shut. Later the doctor can easily dissect the gallbladder from the liver and remove it. The laparoscopic cholecystectomy is more efficient and quicker than an open cholecystectomy. Laparoscopic Hysterectomy A hysterectomy is the removal of the uterus (womb) in women. This may involve removal of the Fallopian tubes, and also ovaries in some cases. This procedure is commonly required in cases of benign fibroid tumors, genital prolapsed, chronic pelvic pain, etc. Laparoscopic Assisted Vaginal Hysterectomy (LAVH) is the surgical method that removes the uterus, ovary and Fallopian tubes through the birth canal in the vagina. A normal laparoscopic hysterectomy involves making small incisions in the abdomen and using a laparoscope with other surgical instruments to remove the uterus, Fallopian tubes and ovary in small pieces. Laparoscopic Hernia Surgery Laparoscopic inguinal hernia repair is a minimally invasive surgical procedure to correct hernia conditions in men. This is caused when the weakened abdominal muscles allow the tissue and organs to push through. This causes bumps to form under the skin. Hernia can form on the groin area, genital area and upper thigh. The laparoscopic method to treat hernia requires inserting the laparoscope into the abdominal cavity that contains the organs. The doctor will then attempt to strengthen the abdominal wall, remove the bulge caused by the hernia and lessen the pain. Laparoscopic Surgery for Ovarian Cyst The surgery to remove an ovarian growth, or cyst, through minimally invasive surgical techniques is known as laparoscopic surgery for ovarian cyst. This technique requires the doctor to make very small incisions to insert a laparoscope that helps initially to determine the type and extent of the cyst. The doctor will then use the attached surgical instruments to remove the cyst. This procedure also helps in diagnosing and treatment of problems such as fibroids, adhesions and other pelvic infections.   Laparoscopic Surgery for Infertility Therapy Laparoscopic procedure is often used to treat infertility conditions in women. The doctor may use the laparoscope initially to diagnose the problem in a more efficient way. If any other underlying condition is seen affecting the fertility ability then the doctor will suggest methods of correcting the disorder to improve the chances of fertility. The use of laparoscopic surgery methods for infertility will depend on the type of disorder that is causing the inability to conceive.

Advantages of Laparoscopic Procedure

Laparoscopic method of treatment has the following advantages over conventional open form of surgery:

  • Less painful
  • Least amount of blood-loss
  • Smaller incisions
  • Lower risk of infection
  • Minimal, or no, blood transfusion is required.

Diagnostic use of Laparoscopy

Diagnostic laparoscopy is also known as exploratory laparoscopy. This is the latest technique of diagnosis of intra-abdominal disorders by directly viewing the abdominal organs. It enables tissue biopsy, various therapeutic interventions and cultural acquisitions.

These are the main advantages of laparoscopic diagnosis over conventional diagnosis methods:
  • Reduced morbidity
  • Less pain after surgery
  • Short post-surgery recovery period
  • Minimal or no scarring

Risks of Laparoscopy

There are a few disadvantages of laparoscopy seen in certain cases, such as:
  • Loss of dexterity for the surgeon
  • Limited range for motion and performing surgery
  • Depth perception is decreased
  • Inability to judge amount of pressure being applied to tissues
  • Tying sutures is more difficult
  • Fulcrum effect makes maneuverability difficult

Conditions treated through Laparoscopy

Laparoscopic surgery techniques employ the use of slender tube-like devices that are inserted in the body with the smallest incisions required. This results in less pain for the patient, quicker and more efficient surgery in hard-to-reach places inside the body, faster recovery time, etc.

The following are some of the conditions that are treated using laparoscopic methods:
  • Cholecystectomy
  • Appendectomy
  • Adrenalectomy
  • Splenectomy, etc

Success rate of Laparoscopic Surgery in India

Laparoscopic surgery is fast becoming a favored method of diagnostic and treatment worldwide. The host of global-class healthcare centers and super-specialty hospitals in major cities such as Delhi, Mumbai, Chennai, Kolkata and Bangalore has the most experienced and well-trained doctors and surgeons on hand. These doctors and surgeons are adept at performing laparoscopic procedures with the highest success rates. Millions of people from across the globe come to India every year to get laparoscopic treatment for various disorders. The cost-effective rates and laparoscopy experts has made India a favorite destination to get laparoscopic surgery.

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