Bladder is a part of urinary tract which stores urine. When cancer abnormally grows in this organ, then it is called bladder cancer. It accounts for 90% of urinary problems associated with renal pelvis, ureters, bladder & urethra. Bladder cancer is treated with surgery, chemotherapy, immunotherapy & radiation. It is said smoking is a major risk factor for development of bladder cancer.
What Is Bladder Cancer?
Bladder is located within the pelvic cavity connected to kidneys, ureter & urethra. Bladder stores, & discharges urine. Abnormal growth of cells in bladder account for bladder cancer which grows rapidly within the lining of the bladder & can spread to other parts of the body. 90% of bladder cancers are transitional cell carcinoma.
Other 10% are –
- squamous cell carcinoma
- small cell carcinoma
- secondary deposits from cancers present elsewhere in the body
What are the Causes of Bladder Cancer?
The actual cause is still a mystery. Scientists say that it is due to the DNA. Apart from this, smoking has been linked to bladder cancer because it is likely to develop twice in smokers than non-smokers. About ½ of all bladder cancers in men & women are caused by smoking.
The bladder’s epithelial lining is irritated for longer durations & certain ‘cell changes’ may eventually lead to cancer. It may happen when catheters are placed in for a long time during radiation treatment or due to a parasite that causes schistosomiasis. If you are exposed to dyes, paints, leather dust, or other chemicals like benzidine, 2-Naphthylamine at work may also cause bladder cancer.
Bladder Cancer Signs & Symptoms
Symptoms may often be similar to other bladder conditions like –
- Blood or clotting of blood in the urine i.e. hematuria
- Pain while urinating i.e. dysuria
- Frequently urination in small amounts
- Urinary tract infections
Advanced bladder cancer symptoms –
- Flank pain or lower back pain around kidneys
- Swollen lower legs
- Growth in the pelvis area near bladder or pelvic mass
When bladder cancer spreads within the body, symptoms are –
- Weight loss
- Bone pain or pain in the areas of rectal, anal, or pelvic region
Types of Bladder Cancer
Bladder cancer is diagnosed with a flexible tube bearing a camera called Cystoscopy. It is introduced through urethra for diagnosing & a biopsy of suspicious lesions is performed so as to confirm.
1. Transitional Cell Bladder Cancer – nine out of ten cases of bladder cancer are transitional cell type which is also known as urothelial cancer.
It has two types:
- Non Muscle Invasive (Superficial) Bladder Cancer – these are superficial bladder cancers that grow in the lining of the bladder & not in deeper layers of the bladder wall.
- Invasive Bladder Cancer – It grows into the muscle layer of the bladder & beyond. This cancer is divided into T2, T3 or T4 which is a part of staging of bladder cancer.
2. Squamous Cell Bladder Cancer – squamous are flat cells which make moist, skin like tissues lining body organs. If there is a worm infection called bilharzia or schistosomiasis then it gives rise to squamous cell cancer.
3. Adenocarcinoma of the Bladder – very rare type of cancer which develops from the cells in bladder lining that produce mucus.
4. Sarcoma (rare type)
5. Small Cell Cancer (rare type)
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What are Treatments to Cure Bladder Cancer?
Doctors choose treatment to cure Bladder Cancer as per prognosis or severity of the cancer. It totally depends on cancer’s stage & grade & patient’s age, overall health, & quality of life. If there is early detection of cancer then surgery is the best option.
While treating bladder cancer doctors follow –
- Surgery to remove the cancer. A surgery which is known as transurethral resection surgery is done through the urethra. Cystectomy is performed to remove full bladder or partial bladder.Urinary diversion surgery is done to make a new passage to store urine. It involves making a pouch inside the body from part of the intestines which is called a continent reservoir. Doctors may also make an artificial opening which is called ileal conduit where patient has to wear a flat bag or pouch to store urine outside the body.
- Chemotherapy may also be given before or after surgery to kill cancer.
- Radiation therapy uses high-dose X-rays or other high-energy rays.
- Immunotherapy is applied to attack bladder cancer cells.
What are Benefits of Bladder Cancer Treatment & Surgery?
Various modes to treat bladder cancer are surgery, chemotherapy, radiotherapy & immunotherapy. Surgery completely puts cessation on cancer & its associated symptoms. It is the most effective treatment for early stage cancer so as to increase life expectancy. Chemotherapy & radiation kill or shrink growth of cancer & improve overall patient’s quality of life. Immunotherapy attacks cancer cells by restoring & empowering the immune system.
Why People Choose India for Bladder Cancer Treatment & Surgery?
India is a favourite destination for all types of surgeries right from traditional to minimal invasive. These medical facilities & laboratories comprise modern computerized equipment to perform diagnostics & surgeries. There are many premium, accredited & super specialty hospitals with state-of-the-art infrastructure. Overall surgery with postoperative care, costs in India are quite affordable. Doctors are highly trained in various types of surgical procedures. Hospital staff attends patients round the clock & keep check of all their medical needs.
Finding the Best Bladder Cancer Treatment & Surgery in India?
Travcure medical tourism helps you to find the best bladder cancer treatment & surgical solution in India. They provide outstanding medical facilities & cost effective treatment packages from top healthcare giants like Apollo, Fortis, Max Healthcare & many more. They have access to top-notch oncologists & bladder cancer experts. Travcure healthcare consultants ensure that you receive transparent, high-quality, seamless, affordable & hassle-free extensive range of treatments & services.