Orthopaedic Surgery is generally called as joint replacement surgeries & include knee replacement, hip replacement, rotator cuff repair, ACL, PCL & many more procedures. If you are an active participant of physical activities like in sports or heavy duty job-works, you might face some issues with your joints & need better medical assistance to overcome it. Here is complete detailed information regarding orthopaedic surgery, types, causes & treatment options.
Orthopaedics involve, treatment of musculoskeletal system including bones, joints, ligaments, tendons, muscles & spine. This medical specialty is interlinked with associate specialties like Neurology, Physiotherapy, Psychiatry and Pain specialists.
Orthopaedic problems may be either due to age-related wear & tear, birth defects, infections, trauma or some other medical conditions that also affect the musculoskeletal system. Though these problems are not life-threatening but they definitely prevent you from enjoying a normal life-style. The pain & discomfort these conditions bring along hinder the simplest day-to-day activities. Joint replacement & total hip replacement are some of the main surgery options for patients across the world suffering from progressive arthritis.
India is the chosen destination of patients across global nationalities who are looking forward to total knee replacement & total hip replacement surgeries to solve their orthopaedic problems.
Orthopaedic doctors in India are some of the best surgeons who have been trained in the west. Many Travcure associated healthcare facilities are apt in most joint replacement surgeries, in a capacity to solve a wide range of orthopaedic medical conditions.
Treatments in Travcure Orthopaedic Hospitals
Total Knee Replacement Surgery, Knee Arthroplasty or Artificial Knee Replacement is an ideal procedure to relieve pain & disability of weight-bearing surfaces of knee-joints. It is also commonly applied for conditions like osteoarthritis, psoriatic arthritis & rheumatoid arthritis.
Generally reserved for people over 50 years of age, total knee replacement surgery is an ideal option to resolve your painful knee due to severe osteoarthritis. Performed under general anaesthesia or spinal/epidural anaesthesia, this surgical procedure involves an 8 to 12 inch cut in front of the knee. Damaged parts of patient’s joint are removed from surface of bones & stunt surfaces are then reshaped to hold metal or plastic artificial joint parts.
Attached to thigh bone, shin & knee-cap, with cement & special materials, these artificial parts form into the knee joint when fit together. This new joint, like the original one, relies on surrounding muscle & ligaments for essential support & normal function.
Partial Knee Replacement, Unilateral Knee Replacement & Bilateral Knee Replacement are associate procedures which doctors may like to consider while designing a treatment plan for your knee-joint problem. Other popular knee surgeries include Arthroscopic Meniscus Repair Surgery, ACL Surgery & PCL Reconstruction Surgery. Like in many other types of surgeries, minimally invasive total knee replacement techniques have revolutionised total knee replacement surgery as well. Key characteristic of this specialised technique hold good here too & surgeons can do without large incisions to perform the knee replacement surgery using minimally invasive techniques.
Causes for Knee Replacement
- Joint Instability
- Hormonal Changes
- Repetitive Trauma
- Poor Alignment & Biomechanics
- Age & Genes
Types of Knee Replacement
Four Major types of Knee Replacement Surgeries
- Total Knee Replacement: In this surgery most of the time the procedure involves replacing the joint surface at the top of shin bone & joint surface at the end of thigh bone.
- Unicompartmental (Partial) Knee Replacement: If only one side of your knee is affected by arthritis, most of the time it is inner side of the knee, which includes the possibility of Uni-compartmental (Partial) Replacement.
- Kneecap Replacement or Patellofemoral Arthroplasty: This replacement surgery includes replacement just under-surface of the kneecap & its trochlea. It is also known as patellofemoral joint arthroplasty or a patellofemoral replacement.
- Complex or Revision Knee Replacement: Few individuals might require more complex knee replacement surgery. In this generally it utilises a longer stem which supports the component to be stably fixed into the bone cavity.
India is a specialist destination for Knee Replacement procedures. Knee Replacement Surgery costs in India are affordable & just a fraction of what you normally pay in the western developed countries. Offering high-tech medical solutions to a large variety of healthcare problems, it is no wonder that India is one of the most favoured global health care destinations for orthopaedic treatments today.
Hip Replacement Surgery or Hip Arthroplasty is presently the most common orthopaedic operation which is generally conducted in cases of arthritis pain & hip fractures. Correct selection of the right prosthetic replacement implant is crucial in this surgical procedure. The surgeon removes damaged sections of hip joint with parts constructed of metal or hard plastic during hip replacement. Eventually this prosthesis helps reduce pain & improve functions as well.
It would be wiser to consider hip replacement surgery as an option if hip pain is interfering with daily activities & conservative treatments have not been helpful. Generally, damage due to progressive arthritis is most common reason for patients across the world seeking hip replacement surgery. Other conditions calling for this surgical procedure include osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis & osteonecrosis.
Associated joint replacement surgery procedures for hips include Hip Resurfacing Surgery, Unilateral Hip Replacement & Bilateral Hip Replacement techniques.
Causes of Hip Dislocation
- Motor vehicle collisions is the main reason of traumatic hip dislocations
- Fall from a significant height
- Industrial accidents can also dislocate hips
- Other related common injuries with hip dislocations include fractures in pelvis, legs, back, abdomen, knee & head injuries
Types of Hip Replacement Surgeries
Two Major Types of Hip Replacement Surgeries
- Total Hip Replacement: In a total hip replacement, part of the thigh bone (femur) including the ball (head of femur) is removed & a new, smaller artificial ball is fixed into the rest of the thigh bone.
- Metal-on-Metal Hip Resurfacing: Instead of removing head of the thigh bone & replacing it with an artificial ball, a hollow metal cap is fitted over the head of the thigh bone.
India is a specialist destination for Hip replacement procedures. Hip replacement cost in India are affordable & just a fraction of what you normally pay in the western developed countries. Offering high-tech medical solutions to a large variety of healthcare problems, it is no wonder that India is one of the most favoured global health care destinations for hip replacement today.
Carpal Tunnel Release surgery is arm & hand related medical condition normally causing tingling & numbness as symptoms. The cause underlying this condition is a pinched nerve in the wrist. Associated factors contributing to carpal tunnel syndrome problems include basic anatomy of wrist, patterns of hand use & certain underlying health issues. Carpal tunnel is a narrow passage bound by bones & ligaments located along the palm side of wrist.
The tunnel effectively protects a major median nerve to hand along with nine tendons helping bend fingers. Compression of this nerve produces tingling, numbness & subsequently weakness of hand which characterises problems associated with carpal tunnel syndrome. Proper treatment effectively relieves tingling & numbness sensations from index, middle fingers & thumb so as to restore normal wrist & hand functions.
Arthritis basically is inflammation of one or more joints in the body. Main symptoms in arthritis include stiffness & joint pain which typically become worse with aging. Osteoarthritis & rheumatoid arthritis are the most common forms of this medical condition. Osteoarthritis causes cartilage to break down. Cartilage is the hard, slippery tissue covering ends of bones where they form joints. Rheumatoid arthritis is an autoimmune disorder which targets lining of joints in body.
Other varieties of arthritis are also caused in association with underlying diseases, infections, uric acid crystals, psoriasis or lupus. Treatments of arthritis vary depending upon the type of ailment. Some common signs & symptoms of arthritis include severe pain, swelling, stiffness, redness & decrease in range of motion. General risk factors for arthritis include obesity, family history, sex, age & previous joint injury. Severe arthritis may even make daily activity challenging.
Shoulder Replacement Surgery is a procedure where part or the entire glenohumeral joint is replaced by prosthetic implant. This type of joint replacement surgery is normally conducted to fix severe physical joint damage or to relieve arthritis pain.
Shoulder Replacement Surgery is an ideal opportunity for treatment of severe arthritis of shoulder joint caused by wearing of cartilage lining. Painful bone-on-bone arthritis happens due to this condition. This condition is extremely painful & can restrict motion. Though it can be managed with medications & lifestyle adjustments, there comes a time when surgical intervention is absolutely necessary.
Shoulder Replacement Surgery is considered only when pains worsen. Once surgery is completed, the shoulder joint looks & functions like original. Arthroscopic Shoulder Surgery which is also known as Rotator Cuff Repair Surgery is an excellent procedure to solve your medical problems relating to the shoulder joint.
Ankle Replacement Surgery is also known as Ankle Arthroplasty. This surgical procedure is meant to replace damaged articular surfaces of ankle joint with prosthetic material. Ankle joint replacement choice as surgery is fast replacing conventional fusion of bones (arthrodesis) among patients. Restoration of range of motion is key feature in favour of ankle replacement in comparison with arthrodesis.
The main objectives of prosthetic design in ankle joint replacement are to replicate original ankle joint function by restoring appropriate kinematics at replaced joint. This surgery is also meant to permit good fixation of components involving appropriate load transfer to bone with minimum risk. Longevity of implant is also guaranteed which is largely relating to wear & tear. Outcome studies on modern designs reveal a five-year implant survival rate.
Elbow replacement surgery procedure is complicated because elbows have several moving parts which need to balance one another with great precision so as to control movements of forearm. Elbows usually get damaged by problems ranging from traumatic fractures to rheumatoid arthritis, but when damage is extensive, doctors may recommend elbow replacement surgery.
In this surgical procedure the damaged joint is removed & artificial prosthetic joint made from two implants are inserted into arm bones. A metal & plastic hinge enjoins implants together. Great care has to be taken that large ulnar nerve is not harmed during surgery. Performed under general anaesthesia, this surgery takes about 2 hours of time, but patients need to stay up to 4 days in hospital. Moreover, getting used to the experience of this new fixture will take some time.
It is one of the most common type of knee injury; Sportspersons who are actively participating in sports like basketball, football or soccer are more prone to ACL or Anterior Cruciate Ligament wear & tear. If you have issues of ACL, you might need surgery to restore full functionality of your knee movements. This surgery is done with an arthroscope utilising small cuts. The surgery is less invasive, that is why it has less pain, less time for surgery & faster recovery.
PCL or Posterior Cruciate Ligament Orthopaedic
This ligament is in the back portion of knee. It is one of the joints which connects shinbone to thighbone. It is used to control the movement of shinbone backwards. Serious accidents can cause injury of PCL. Surgery for PCL rebuilding is same as ACL, performed with arthroscope utilising small cuts.
Rotator Cuff Repair is a surgery type which is performed to repair torn tendon in the shoulder. This procedure might require large cut or button-hole sized cuts used in shoulder arthroscopy. The rotator cuff is a muscle group which forms a cuff over the shoulder joint.
Three common techniques for rotator cuff repairs
- Open Surgery or Open Repair: The cut is large & large muscle is placed out, mostly done for more complex & large injuries.
- Arthroscopy: The arthroscope is inserted via a small cut, & with the help of video monitoring by use of scope the surgery is performed.
- Mini-Open Repair or Surgery: A 2-3 inch cut is made to remove any bone sours and/or damaged muscle group utilising arthroscope.
While bowed legs in toddlers are common, overweight adolescents occasionally are also found to display this condition. Main causes responsible for this situation include Rickets, Physiologic Genu Varum & Blount’s Disease.
This condition does not typically cause any pain, but especially during adolescence, persistent bowing leads to discomfort in ankles, knees & hips with turning-in of feet which is also common in toddlers that occurs in combination with bowed legs.
While coordination during locomotion depends upon the amount of bowing, there is an abnormal amount of stress which is passed on to the lower extremity joints. Guided Growth & Tibial Osteotomy are the two main types of Bow Leg Surgery procedure to correct this condition. Casts may be applied after surgery so as to protect bone during healing. Crutches are also necessary for few weeks alongside physical therapy exercises so as to restore strength & range of motion.
Limb Length Discrepancy (LLD) is clinically known as Anisomelia which is defined as a medical condition showing noticeably unequal lengths within paired lower extremity limbs. Structural or anatomical leg length discrepancy (SLLD) & functional or apparent leg length discrepancy (FLLD) are the two types of LLDs found in patients. FLLD is defined as a unilateral asymmetry of lower limbs without any concomitant shortening of osseous components in lower extremities.
Surgical interventions include stopping bone growth in the longer leg in children & adolescents. Limb shortening by bone resection procedures is also performed for patients with skeletal maturity. Limb lengthening is normally reserved for patients with LLI greater than 40-50 mm & involves corical osteotomy followed by fitting external fixation devices which apply continuous longitudinal distraction across operation site.
Hip Resurfacing developed as a surgical alternative to total hip replacement (THR) surgery. This procedure involves placing a hollow cobalt-chrome metal cap, which is shaped like a mushroom, over the head of femur & matching a metal cup placed in acetabulum the pelvis socket. This combo replaces articulating surfaces of the hip joint while removing very little bone. When a patient moves hip with the new joint, it induces synovial fluid flow in between hard metal bearing surfaces thereby lubricating when components are placed in correct position.
Level of experience of surgeon in hip surfacing is vital & most crucial for a successful outcome. Some advantages of hip resurfacing against THR include bone preservation, reduced chances of hip dislocation & easier revision surgery due to more availability of original bone stock. While minimizing surgeon induced discrepancies, toe-in & toe-out faults are also avoided, since femoral neck determining foot direction is left undisturbed in hip surfacing procedure.
Surgical removal of a part or all torn meniscus is called Meniscectomy. Unilateral & total are normal surgical procedures when menisci are torn or injured. A common knee joint injury, surgeons performing meniscectomies will eventually decide on the type of surgery to be performed based on the meniscus tear & its ability to heal depending upon the age, health & activity level of the patient. Nevertheless, in any case, menisci excision severely impacts & disrupts knee function.
Other Orthopaedic Surgery Procedures in India
India is a specialist destination which is capable of solving most difficult medical conditions at affordable prices. Some other common Travcure orthopaedics healthcare treatments available in country include Cervical Surgery, Bunion Surgery, Spinal Fusion Surgery, Hand & Wrist Surgery, Foot & Ankle Surgery, & Fracture Surgery. Paediatric Orthopaedics treatments in India are available for most congenital & acquired medical conditions including Limb Lengthening Surgery. Ilizarov Technique & Nerve Injury Treatments are also offered in the Indian subcontinent.